Damage to the nails as a result of trauma or disease results in nail dystrophy. Trauma to the tips of the digits occasionally results in the formation of a subungial haematoma. The severe pain which accompanies this problem can be relieved by piercing the nail place with a heated needle or paper clip. Unfortunately, surgical removal of the nail plate is simply followed by regrowth of an equally dystrophic nail. Cosmetic improvement can be obtained if one cements a false nail on top of the dystrophic nail plate.
In nails infection men are somewhat more frequently involved than are those in women.
Nail dystropohy occurs in a considerable proportion of patients with psoriasis. A decrease of blood flow to the small vessels of the toes regularly results in the development of nail dystrophy.
Beau’s grooves are 1mm wide depression in the nail plate which extends horizontally from one lateral nail groove to the other.
Clubbing of the distal fingers is identified by
flattening of the groove or angle, formed by junction of the proximal nail plate and the paronychial fold;
rounding of the nail plate such that the distal edge begins to curve around the distal tip of the digit; and
widening or thickening of the digit from the distal interphalangeal joint to the tip.
Nail splitting of the nail plate can occur in either of two forms: cracks which are oriented parallel to the length of the finger or through separation of the nail plate layers such that “flakes’ of nail chip off the distal edge.
Periungual warts often distort the nail plate. White Banding or opacification occurs in a variety of settings. Brown Banding occurs in either of two directions: a vertical band or horizontal band. Splinter Haemorrhages occur as thin dark red lines 1 to 3 mm in length.
Oncyholysis is mot commonly caused by infection with Candida species, These Candida infections occur with particular frequency in individuals such as dish-washers, bartenders, waitresses and dentists who are regularly involved in wet work. Bacterial Paronychia is an acute, painful process. Herpetic Whitlow is the name given to paronychial infection with Herpes virus hominis type 1 or type II are associated with redness, swelling, warmth, exquisite tenderness and regional lymphadenophathy.
Ingrown Toe-nail is the most common cause of paronichial inflammation of the great toe. Homeopathic remedy for panaritium with brittle nails, lancinating pains and tendency to ulceration of the finger-tips; gnawing beneath the finger-nails, with crawling along the arm as far as the clavicle; nails brittle or thick, spots on nails is cured by drug known as Alumina.